Secondary Source Material


Binnewies, Robert O. Palisades: 100,000 Acres in 100 Years. New York: Fordham University Press, 2001.

This book was written in order to give a thorough history of the Palisades Interstate Park and to show the century-long struggle to save the Palisades , starting with Teddy Roosevelt. Robert Binnewies is an official with the National Park service and qualified to write the history of the park.

Chapter 15 is devoted to the Storm King case and provides a view of the controversy from the perspective of the Palisade Interstate Park Commission (PIPC). The PIPC became interested in the Storm King case because of the close proximity of Storm King Mountain to the Palisades Park . The chapter highlights the gradual shift in attitude of the PIPC, from their surprising beginning of supporting and working with Con Ed, to finally joining the opposition to them years later. This chapter provides a full timeline of events of the case (including its conclusion in 1980 and comments about the impact the Storm King case had on environmental law). There is a complete bibliography at the end, (organized by chapter) that contains primary sources such as letters, newspapers, and magazine articles.

Boyle, Robert. The Hudson : A Natural and Unnatural History. New York : Norton, 1969.

Robert Boyle was one of the founders of the Hudson River Fisherman's Association (HRFA) in 1965 and a writer for Sports Illustrated during the 1960's. He was a key player in the Court of Appeals decision in 1965 to force the FPC to look at more recent studies done on striped bass in the Hudson River and a continued battler against Con Ed throughout the Storm King controversy.

Overall, this book contains a natural and unnatural history of the Hudson River and describes the diversity of the Hudson River : demographics, plants, aquatic life, and humans. Chapter 9 discusses the Storm King case (how Consolidated Edison wanted to build a hydroelectric power plant at the base of Storm King Mountain along the Hudson ), the formation of Scenic Hudson and HRFA to battle the building of the plant, and the events leading up until 1969 (when the book was published). This is the most important chapter of the book, as it presents not only the timeline of events dealing with Storm King but also the author's knowledge of the river and opinions of the effects the plant would have on the river. This book does contain a bibliography at the end, but it is organized according to subject and therefore the Storm King materials are scattered throughout the subjects.

For a beginning overview of the Storm King case, this book (along with Power Along the Hudson: The Storm King Case and the Birth of Environmentalism by Allan Talbot and The Hudson River Highlands by Frances Dunwell) is great for background information on the Hudson River and a good introduction to the Storm King case because of the explanation of the issues surrounding the Storm King case, such as those dealing with the effects of the power plant on the striped bass.

Carmer, Carl. The Hudson. New York : Fordham University Press, [1989].

This book is a history of the Hudson Valley and all the major events that happened along the river up until its original publication in 1939. Some of the major topics covered by Carmer are the colonization by Europeans along the Hudson , the Hudson 's crucial role during the Revolutionary War, the Hudson River School of Painters, the steamboats, and industrialization along the Hudson starting in the 1890's. In the afterward, Roger Panetta talks about the significance of the book in the Storm King case and Carmer's role in the proceedings. This book and Carmer were important in the Storm King case because Carmer was the historian expert who spoke at the Court of Appeals trial on the River's behalf about its historical significance and importance to the area.

Cronin, John and Kennedy, Robert F. The Riverkeepers: Two Activists Fight to Reclaim Our Environment as a Basic Human Right. New York : Scribner, 1997.

This book discusses the creation of the Hudson Riverkeepers and their fight to keep the river clean. Chap 1 discusses the Storm King case in general and discusses the fisheries argument (the authors use much of Robert Boyle's information), the organizations formed and laws that were passed as a result of the Storm King case. The result of the case and the laws are described in greater detail in Chapter 5. There is an appendix that gives a national directory of River Keeper Programs in the country.

Dunwell, Frances F. The Hudson River Highlands. New York : Columbia University Press, 1991.

Frances Dunwell is qualified to write a book on the Hudson Highlands due to the fact that she served as the director to the Center for the Hudson River Valley , and also worked for Scenic Hudson. She was involved in the fight to save Storm King towards the end of the 17 year battle.

This book overall describes the natural and human experience with the Hudson Highlands and the birth of the modern environmental movement. Chapter 12 provides an in-depth description of the entire Storm King case and includes primary sources such as quotes from newspaper and magazine articles from the 1960's. Dunwell discusses the facts surrounding the case, the people and organizations involved, a chronology of events and legal proceedings, and comments on the effects of this case on environmental law. There is a complete bibliography (organized by chapter) at the end of the book, which is useful for locating more sources regarding the Storm King case.

Kemp, James Furman. The Storm King Crossing of the Hudson River, by the new Catskill aqueduct of New York City. New Haven: J.D. & E.S. Dana, 1912.

Lewis, Tom. The Hudson: A History. Harrisonburg : R.R. Donnelley, 2005.

This book contains a history of the Hudson River Valley from its discovery by Henry Hudson to the 20 th century. In the chapter discussing the Hudson River in the 20 th century the author briefly discusses the history of the Storm King case, its results and impact.

Lifset, Robert. Storm King Mountain & the Emergence of Modern American Environmentalism 1962-1980. Diss. Columbia University , 2005.

Limburg , Karin E., Moran, Mary Ann, William H. McDowell. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Hudson River Ecosystem: Multiple Case Study and Data Base Review. Ithaca , N.Y. : Ecosystems Research Center , Cornell University , [1985].

This book discusses the scientific data collected to give details about the environmental impact assessment of the Hudson River . Chapter 3 discusses the Storm King case and explains what power plants are, what they do in relation to the river and how they affect the river's ecosystem. The chapter also discusses the research programs and studies sponsored by the utilities as a result of the Storm King case, entrapment and impingement, and the fisheries of the Hudson River.

Limburg, Karin E. The Hudson River Ecosystem. New York : Springer-Verlag, 1986.

Karin Limburg is a member of the Ecosystems Research Center found at Cornell University . The Center was founded by the Environmental Protection Agency with the goal of studying all aspects of the ecosystem so predictions could be made as to how the ecosystem would react to various situations.

Describes the Hudson River Ecosystem and the effects power plants have on the river. This book contains the same chapter 3 (word for word) that is found in Environmental Impact Assessment of the Hudson River Ecosystem: Multiple Case Study and Data Base Review. Storm King Mountain is only briefly mentioned, however the chapter does a good job of showing how Storm King and another controversy involving closed-cycle cooling towers became linked together to benefit the Utilities.

Limburg , Karin E., Harwell, Christine C. & Simon A. Levin. Principles for Estuarine Impact Assessment: Lessons Learned from the Hudson River and Other Estuarine Experiences. Ithaca , N.Y. : Ecosystems Research Center , Cornell University , 1984.

Lurkis, Alexander. The Power Brink. New York : Icarus Press, 1982.

Alexander Lurkis was the Chief Engineer of the New York City's Bureau of Gas and Electricity from 1959-1964 and testified on behalf of Scenic Hudson of other alternatives (such as a gas turbine plant) to the hydroelectric plant at Storm King Mountain.

This book looks at the history of the electrical system in New York City , the rise of Consolidated Edison and their decisions during the time of major blackouts in New York City (1959-1981). Storm King is discussed throughout the book and is most prevalent in chapters 5 and 6, where the author examines and nullifies the argument that the some of the blackouts were caused by environmentalists and their resistance to Storm King.

Pratt, Joseph A. A Managerial History of Consolidated Edison , 1936-1981. New York: Consolidated Edison Company of New York, 1988.

Joseph Pratt was a Professor at the University of California-Berkeley School of Business. He was selected to write a theme based managerial History of Consolidated Edison so that future managers of the utility would understand the past events that have shaped the management of Con Edison into what it is today.

This book relates the history of Con Edison based around themes rather than a narrative and chronological history. Storm King is discussed in Chapter 7 as part of Con Edison's history with Environmentalism. The author examines how Storm King made fundamental changes in Con Edison's operations. As a result of the that controversy, Consolidated Edison created new departments within its organizations that specifically deal with air and water pollution, as well as another organization that studies fish. The fact that the controversy was solved through a mediator is also briefly looked at.

Sandler, Ross & David Schoenbrod. The Hudson River Power Plant Settlement: Materials Prepared for a Conference Sponsored by New York University School of Law and the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. New York : New York University School of Law, 1981.

Sondheimer, Carol & Stephen H. Lopez. Scenic Quality in the Lower Hudson River Valley: Proceedings of a Conference on Assessing and Preserving Visual Resources, Cunneen-Hackett Cultural Center, Poughkeepsie, New York, November 14, 1984 . New York State : s.n., 1984.

Talbot, Allan R. Settling Things: Six Case Studies in Environmental Mediation . Washington , D.C. : Conservation Foundation, Ford Foundation, 1983.

This book discusses 6 environmental cases from around the country and looks at how mediation works in environmental disputes. Chapter 1 describes the Storm King Mountain case, and looks at the negotiations between Con Ed, the state, and the environmental groups, especially towards the end of the disagreement. The author outlines each of the parties' demands and discusses the concessions and agreements that were made to solve the dispute. The main character described in this chapter is Russell Train, who served as mediator between the two main sides from 1979-1980. At the end of the book, Talbot reviews his opinion on how successful environmental mediation is, how it should be implemented in the future, and how mediation processes should be funded.

Talbot, Allan R. Power Along the Hudson : The Storm King Case and the Birth of Environmentalism . New York : Dutton, 1972.

This book discusses the Storm King case in detail up until 1972 it covers the initial planning stages of the plant by Con Ed, the conflict with Scenic Hudson, each of the trials up until 1972, the role of the Rockefeller brothers, Con Ed's attempts to compromise, and many other key players involved in the Storm King case. Along with the details of the Storm King case, the author provides a history of the mountain and the effects canals had on the mountain, information about the highway that was to be built on the Tappan Zee lands in Westchester Co, and his own thoughts and analysis of the Storm King case and its impact on environmental law. This book is well-written, detailed, and an excellent resource.

United States . Congress. House. Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment.  Storm King Mountain: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session, on Oversight on Proposal of Consolidated Edison Co. of New York to Construct a Pump Storage Plant on Storm King Mountain, N.Y., February 19, 1974 . Washington : U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1975.

Wright, Francis Milton. The Politics of an Environmental Interest Group: A Case Study of the Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference . Diss. University of Colorado , 1973.

This book is the published version of a dissertation written by Francis Wright, who is now a Doctor of Political History. The purpose of the dissertation was to study the internal political structure of an environmental interest group and it's role in the American political system. The author chose Scenic Hudson as his interest group to study.

The dissertation studies in depth the formation of the Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference, covering the reasons why the group was formed, the Storm King Mountain Controversy. The dissertation covers the entire case, going into a lot of detail, from the beginning until 1973. The case is covered from the viewpoint of Scenic Hudson. The cases before the FPC, the Court of Appeals, and the Supreme Court are all studied. Every move that Scenic Hudson took was mentioned and the reasons behind it explained in depth. The internal workings of Scenic Hudson from its struggling beginning fazes to its current accomplished and professional faze are analyzed, and how this change affected the Storm King Case is analyzed as well. Although the dissertation is clearly written from an environmentalist standpoint, it goes into the most depth seen to date, and it is an excellent resource.



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last updated on 2006 June 08